Stepper Motors and Brush Less DC Motors

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Stepper motors are used for accurate, repeatable positioning such as machine tool applications or for moving the head in an ink-jet printer. By using an electronic controller that applies electrical pulses to the motor windings, the motor shaft can be rotated in either direction in multiples of the step angle, which can range from 0.720 (500 steps per revolution) to 150 (24 steps per revolution). Stepper motors are available with rotational accuracies on the order of 3 percent of a step, which is noncumulative as the motor is stepped back and forth. By controlling the rate at which pulses are applied to the windings of the stepper motor, speed can be varied continuously from a standing stop to a maximum that depends on the motor and load. The three main types of stepper motors are:

1.Variable-reluctance stepper motor 2.Permanent-magnet stepper motor 3.Hybrid stepper motors

The permanent-magnet stepper motor, which has a cylindrical rotor (called a tin-can rotor) that is permanently magnetized with north and south poles alternating around its circumference. The stator of the permanent magnet motor is similar to that of the reluctance motor. As in the reluctance type, the rotor position is stepped by applying a sequence of pulses to the stator windings. Hybrid stepper motors that combine variable reluctance with permanent magnets are also available.

Conventional dc motors are particularly useful in applications that require high speeds and in those for which dc power is available, such as those in aircraft and automobiles. However, because they contain commutators and brushes, conventional dc motors have several disadvantages. These include relatively short service lives due to brush and commutator wear, particularly at very high speeds. Also, arcing as the brushes move between commutator segments can pose a hazard in explosive environments and can create severe radio interference. A relatively new development, the brushless dc motor, provides an excellent alternative when the disadvantages of conventional dc motors are prohibitive. Brushless dc motors are essentially permanent-magnet stepping motors equipped with position sensors (either Hall Effect or optical) and enhanced control units.

As in the stepper motor, power is applied to one stator winding at a time. When the position sensor indicates that the rotor has approached alignment with the stator field, the controller electronically switches power to the next stator winding so that smooth motion continues. By varying the amplitude and duration of the pulses applied to the stator windings, speed can be readily controlled. The result is a motor that can operate from a dc source with characteristics similar to those of a conventional shunt dc motor. Brushless dc motors are used primarily in low-power applications. Their advantages include relatively high efficiency, long service life with little maintenance, freedom from radio interference, ability to operate in explosive chemical environments, and capability for very high speeds (50,000 rpm or more).

This article has been compiled by Classof1; they offer electrical engineering assignment help

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All About Overunity Magnet Motor

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Problems of power crisis are prevalent almost everywhere around the world. To deal with the problem, alternative ways to generate power like use of solar energy and wind turbines are gaining fast popularity. Overunity Magnet motor is another effective alternative to generate power. This method involves use of magnetic power to generate unlimited electricity without using any other power source to generate power.

The magnetic motor power generators don’t occupy much space and they work effectively in all weather conditions. These magnetic motors work efficiently all through the day and it significantly helps you reduce your power bills.

Working of Overunity magnet motor work

The mechanism of overunity magnet motor working is very simple. To understand the working of overunity magnetic motor all you need to know is the very simple universal fact that two opposite ends of the magnet i.e. north end and south end attract each other, while the alike ends repel each other. This mechanism of attraction and repulsion of two magnetic poles create a rotational movement inside the generator and generates electricity, which you can use to run your entire electronic appliance at home.

Today more and more people are getting attracted towards overunity magnet motor and have realized its potential to generate cost effective electricity. Overunity magnet motor is a better alternative to generate electricity than using wind and solar energy. Besides, it is very easy to build and install a magnet motor power generator than a wind generator or solar panels. Many experts are of the opinion that one fully equipped Overunity magnet motor is capable of generating as much energy as six solar panels.

Surely, Overunity magnet motor power generators have a long way to go and are the future of the power industry. It can be used to its fullest potential to fend off the problems of power crisis. It is also an eco-friendly source of power generator and doesn’t involve burning of valuable non-renewable energy resources, thus it can also contribute significantly towards curbing the perils of global warming.

Overunity magnet motor is the best way to generate clean energy. To know more about the various ways to generate clean energy, visit www.bestgreenhomediyenergy.com/.

First Car Rental’s Top 10 Camping sites in South Africa Part 1

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South Africa’s breathtaking landscape, amiable climate and amazing wildlife make an ideal setting for a thrilling camping experience. First Car Rental lists the top 10 camping sites in South Africa.

1. Driehoek Farm, Western Cape Located 240 kilometres from Cape Town on the N7, the Driehoek Farm nestles at the heart of the Cederberg Mountains and offers a picturesque camping site. This camping site makes the perfect base for hiking to well-known landmarks like Tafelberg, Sneeuberg, the Maltese Cross and the Wolfberg Arch. Prices: From R150 for up to 5 people Contact: 027 482 2828

2. Tankwa Karoo National Park, Western Cape The 143 600 hectare Tankwa Karoo National Park lies on the southern boundary of the Northern Cape with the Roggeveld Escarpment in the East, Cederberg in the West, and Klein Roggeveld Mountains in the South, and is home to a fascinating diversity of life. Price: From R100 for 2 people Contact: 023 415 2828 / 9

3. Yellowwood Forest Campsite , Morgan Bay, Eastern Cape The grass-covered, forested camping sites at the Yellowwood Forest Campsite in Morgan Bay are an ideal pick for campers with kids. You can enjoy a guided tour on arrival; pick interesting arts and crafts at the gift shop; and the kids can enjoy themselves in the play area. Price: From R170 for up to 6 persons Contact: 043 8411598

4. Glen Reenen Rest Camp Golden Gate National Park, Free State The 11 600 hectare Golden Gate National Park lies at the foothills of the Maluti Mountains and is 22km East of Clarens in Free State. The brilliant shades of gold cast by the sun on the sandstone cliffs of the Park certainly make it a great camping site. Price: From R165 for two persons Contact: 012 428 9111

5. Magalies Sleepy River Campsite, Gauteng Located just 60 minutes away from Johannesburg and 30 minutes from Krugersdorp, Magalies Sleepy River Campsite gives you a quick getaway into a peaceful environment that is surrounded by lush vegetation. The massive shaded campsite on the banks of the Magalies Riversets is the perfect backdrop for your outdoor adventure. This campsite is a good base to visit the nearby Maropeng and Sterkfontein Caves. Price: From R100-00 per site per day Contact: 072 674 2291

Rent a car with First Car Rental and you can explore South Africa’s top camping sites. With 46 branches nationwide, your car rental is quick and easy.

Seeking Opportunities Associated With Filling The Demand For Boats And Outboard Motors

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When it comes to recreational activities that many individuals enjoy, not many activities can match the recognition that exists with boating. Boating enthusiast’s come in a broad range of characteristics from the individual who enjoys the power and speed that is associated with the ski boats to the individual that likes the quiet and relaxing opportunities of fishing boats.
When you are set up with all the right tools and gear to pursue these interests it becomes quite easy to enjoy. Although, when you’re lacking the equipment you require to enjoy these hobbies; it could prove difficult to enjoy. Instead of being out in the water you are traveling from shop to shop or spending hours on the phone searching for a resource which provides the very best goods at the most reasonable prices.
There are two avenues that you would be able to pursue when you are looking for ski boats or fishing boats. You can go to all the leading suppliers of these vessels seeking a good investment opportunity or you could seek the private dealers in order to get a greater discount on what may only be a vaguely used vessel.
One way to eliminate a great deal of the hassle is to look for the opportunities relating to ski boats or fishing boats that can be found online. When you access the best sites for these vessels you will find a one stop shopping opportunity which would assist you in finding the best vessel for you and get quotes from competing companies, providing the very best chance for discounts.
If you already own a vessel and are unhappy with it’s performance, there are a couple of alternatives available to you. Whilst your vessel might still be in a high quality condition, your dissatisfaction might exist with the power coming out of your outboard motors. Instead of purchasing a new vessel you may be able to simply eliminate your dissatisfaction by investing in Yamaha outboards or Mercury outboards to suit your need for extra power or performance. This choice would be able to save a boat enthusiast a considerable amount of cash since the exchanging of an old outboard motors to Yamaha outboards or Mercury outboards is quite a simple task.
Once again you can turn to the opportunity of the internet to find the best financial opportunity regarding this investment. In fact, when you’re able to access a singular web-site providing the individual with information and investment opportunity on ski boats and fishing boats, and also quotes on Yamaha outboards, Mercury outboards and other outboard motors you will have unlocked your best way to save. Boating is a common passion for many and when you can invest in your own boat it opens a world of possibility.

Benefits Of Buying Low Mileage Used Cars

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The automobiles general condition is perfectly shown by its usage as recommended by its odometer. The reading of a cars odometer starts at nil when the automobile is just released from the manufacturers center. As the vehicle becomes older, its usage raises and its condition gets worse.

A vehicle with lower mileage would definitely run for 5 years or so if it does not have an incident. Hence, people who invest in second-hand vehicles check out lower mileage autos. However, how do you define low mileage? An automobile is regarded as a low mileage car if it has run less than a 100,000 kilometers. Generally, vehicles with a lot more than 200 k kilometers are said to be worn out and must be prevented. These kinds of autos may have quite a few problems unless of course they go for an overhaul.

Cars with higher miles also have corroded sections because of friction and this gets worse with the general distance that the vehicle travels. Even well-maintained vehicles are vulnerable to friction. In case a cars motor gets corroded, its lifespan is cut short.

Usually, miles decides the price tag on the car to be offered. Normally, a car with lower mileage cost higher compared to the one having a higher mileage. In short, the value of an automobile depreciates as the mileage increases. If you would like to know if the cars pricing is right, find out its mileage.

In case you come across a low priced low mileage automobile, you must be cautious enough to check for problems with the automobile. Oftentimes, you could get thrilled if you notice a cheap car that’s advertised in newspapers, net or in vehicle exhibits. And if the automobile provides low miles aside from the affordable price, then it will nearly be considered a done deal.

The sad fact is, that mileage may commonly be deceiving and won’t indicate the vehicles true condition. This is true particularly if a car has experienced incidents before. Yet another sad fact is that cheaters change the odometer reading so that they may get high price for their vehicles. This is why it’s extremely imperative to check on an automobile thoroughly before buying it even when the seller is great in presenting the nice details of the automobile.

Nonetheless, cars with lower mileages are usually much better than those having high mileages. They provide good value for money since they can last for many years and provide you with nice left over price. If you would like to purchase a used vehicle, think about the one that has a price tag that justifies its miles.

Quick Tips For Finding Cheap Motor Car Insurance

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Finding cheap motor car insurance is not very difficult.. Finding the correct type of motor car insurance that perfectly fits your situation and desired amount of coverage can be a little harder. With all the policies and quotes that you see online and in person, how do you know which insurance is best for you and your family? Here are some tips that will help you get the best deal on motor car insurance.

Many people don’t seem to know that you can get cheaper motor car insurance by following fairly simple suggestions. One of the first things you will want to do is get some price quotes online. Almost every motor car insurance broker these days offers free quick quotes on a website. These quotes will let you compare offers between brokers to see who offers the best deal, though they aren’t usually very extensive and inclusive of details. Getting around four or five price quotes should be more than enough. Once these quotes arrive look over them very carefully weighing each offer individually. Compare them to what you are currently paying and see if a better deal exists. Look over each offer and see what is covered and what is not. Always remember that the cheapest price does not mean the best deal. It is quite possible a better deal will exist for you for your desired amount of coverage.

Saving on motor car insurance can also be done by following these simple tips as well. Raise the deductible on your motor car insurance. By raising the deductible you will lower your insurance premiums. The main reason for this is that you are going to assume more of the burden in case of an accident. Another way to lower your motor car insurance is by keeping your vehicle off the street and in a secure location like a locked garage. Motor car insurance brokers like to see people being proactive when it comes to protecting their vehicle and themselves. Taking defensive driving courses can also lower your motor car insurance premiums as well. Every little bit helps.

Trend Of Car Leasing Increasing Day By Day

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The trend of leasing cars has been increasing amongst various people for personal as well as business purposes. And it is not limited to the state or national boundaries, as this is applicable during the times when we are in the same town or travel out of the state, province or even country. I would also suggest you to go for the right sized vehicle, if you are looking out for cheap car leasing. It is worthless to look for the most expensive cars for one person or two, as it becomes expensive. So, check out for the ideal vehicle if cheap car leasing is the main objective.

Spending a lot of money and buying cars is defiantly not a wise decision as by leasing a car one can easily satisfy his/her personal and business commutation. On the other hand the maintenance cost of theses cars is very cheap. The best part about leasing a cheap car is that you not need to spend much of time in maintaining the vehicle as the owner of the company or the company from where you would leave leased your car.

A number of companies are available in the market which offers cheap car leasing. But obvious you can decide on the time line that you need for cheap car leasing and you will get the vehicle based on the availability. Add on to that you can also book your favorite car if you are planning to lease one. However before leasing one you must give a check to various web sites available on the net to search the companies which offers cheap car leasing. This will enable you to compare with one another and in the end youll find the best car and best company to go with.

Oriel Vehicle Leasing specialize in providing cheap car leasing for business users and private individuals. If you decide to lease a car or van contract hire with us we will provide you with all the information about the choice of contracts available to you so that you get the car/van and contract that fits your needs best.

Charity Motors of Michigan and Texas

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Charity Motors is a non-profit organization that operates in Detroit, Michigan and Dallas and Houston, Texas. Founded in 1995, its purpose is helping those who help others.

Charity Motors is one of the few car donation programs that guarantees a fair-market value tax exemption for your vehicle donation. Its purpose is to accept used vehicle donations and grant a full-market value tax deduction for the vehicle. The vehicle is then sold at a discounted price to someone who has previously struggled in their attempts to purchase a vehicle. Proceeds from the sale are donated to a charity of the donor’s choice.

The organization has donated over $24 million to over 2000 charities since its inception in 1995. When vehicles are being sold, Charity Motors will reduce to the price to less than half of the full-market value for them, which has provided vehicles to over 50,000 families in need. Because of its steeply discounted prices for used vehicles, the organization is recognized by the I.R.S. as being charitable, which is how the tax exemption for the car donor can be granted.

The organization will also pick up any vehicle that is eligible for donation, which includes both functional and non-functional vehicles. It also accepts a variety of vehicles besides cars and trucks, including boats, motorcycles, recreational vehicles, mobile homes, and camper trailers. There are few car donation programs that obtain dealer licenses, but Charity Motors is one of these. The title to your vehicle can be transferred out of your name after donation.

In addition to the acquisition and sales of used vehicles, the organization is proud of its Auto Improvement Institute program. Implemented on Detroit’s West Side, the Auto Improvement Institute’s goal is to train at-risk people in the trade of auto repair and equip them with necessary skills to become state-certified. Through this program, the people that are trained can improve and repair vehicles that are donated to Charity Motors, which increases the amount of revenue donated to worthwhile causes.

At its Detroit location, Charity Motors provides 9:00 5:00 car retail sales and also offers a car auction on a weekly basis. Almost all of the vehicles offered by the organization are sold from $100 – $1000.

The list of recipient charities is extensive and includes the American Red Cross, Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, the American Heart Association, and the American Cancer Society.

Learn more about the organization at .

Get Your Motor Ready For Summer With Mccormick Tools

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Winter is almost over, and you need to make sure your car is ready and dressed for warmer weather. Take off those snow-tyres, and give your car the TLC it deserves with McCormick Tools.

Has your car suffered a scratch or mark over the winter period? Gritters, ice and snow-covered bollards can be a total nightmare for car owners. McCormick Tools is one of the leading suppliers of Hycote Spray Paint and Hycote VHT, a concentrated double acrylic spray paint that gives more than twice the coverage of a conventional acrylic paint. McCormick also stock Hycote Alloy Wheel paint, to touch up any flaws your motor may have suffered over winter. McCormick Tools can supply you with specialist acrylic sprays such as BMW, Mini, Peugeot, Fiat and Ford Hycote Paint, as well as many others. Bumper and Vinyl Hycote Paints are also available.

Warmer weather signals a tyre change for most drivers, so save yourself some money by patching up last summers tyres with Slime Tyre Sealant. Slime is a revolutionary tyre care product that gives your wheels a new lease of life. Green by colour, green by nature, Slime Tyre Sealant products are safe for the driver, the tyre, and the environment. At you can browse the full range of Tyre Repair Kits, and being one of the leading tool suppliers in the Durham area, McCormick Tools offer extremely competitive prices.

To finish off your summer preparation, give your interior a full scrub down with Sonax Car Care. From car wax to cockpit shine, glass cleaner to paint renovator, Sonax has everything you need to get the inside of your motor gleaming.

McCormick Tools are a North East based tool suppliers specialising in Hycote Spray Paint, Slime Tyre Sealant, Sonax Car Care and Marigold Industrial Gloves. They are also leading Draper Tools suppliers and Sealey Tool suppliers. For more information, and to browse their full range of products, visit .

Motor Insurance Claim for your Vehicle – A Simple Process

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To make a motor insurance claim for vehicles if there is an accident is easy. It is a simple two to three step process to ensure you peace of mind in your hour of need. The first step is to call a customer service centre to register your claim and get a registration number for future reference. Information such as your contact number, policy number, vehicle number, time and date of accident, nature of damage incurred, if there is an injury are recorded.

All motor insurances companies have tie ups with garage networks which offer you cashless facility for servicing your vehicle. A surveyor would be appointed to check the vehicle at the garage and give approval for the repair. The vehicle would be handed back to you post your satisfaction on the repair done. If you choose to repair your vehicle at one of the garages in the network of the motor insurance company, the claim is settled directly at the garage. You might have to just pay for the damage that is not covered under the insurance or which is not related to the accident.

Alternately, you can repair the car at any garage you want to and get back the amount spent as reimbursement. This reimbursement can be obtained only once the repairs are done and your have submitted your bills to the motor insurance company’s claims department.

The motor insurance claim process is smooth and has been kept easy for the convenience of the customer. Your motor insurance policy would cover claims if there is damage to your vehicle due to a natural calamity like fire, flood, earthquake or cyclone. Accidents, riots, strikes or terrorist activities are also covered by a motor insurance claim. Insurance for damage during transit by road, rail, air or inland waterways are provided by the insurance claim process. The next circumstances are of -voluntary excess’ or -deductible’. It is a definite sum of money an insured, which, is you, choose to bear if there is an accident and the rest is insured under the policy.

Motor insurance companies also compensate for injury or death of the driver or owner of a car which is insured, damages caused to a third party during an accident, third party property damaged, etc. Motor insurance policy excludes common damage to the car, mechanical or electrical breakdown, damage incurred outside the country or damage caused at the time of driving under the influence of alcohol. Your claim would not be welcome if the accidental damage to the car and property has happened due to any of the exclusions mentioned by the motor insurance company.

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It is very essential to have a car insurance policy. Author Pranav Sharma is an experienced insurance professional and widely read expert on general insurance based in Mumbai. Pranav helps readers opt for best car insurance policy in India.